Category: my readings


Allah  الله

Learn About Allah, The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe.

Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; ‘Allaha’ in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus, pbuh). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten.

The Name Allah was not chosen by man but was revealed and referred to by all the Prophets (peace be on them). Allah was the God worshipped by Adam, Noah, Moses, Abraham and all the other Prophets sent by him.

The name “Allah” consists of two parts, “Al” which is the definitive article in Arabic and “ilah” which means an object to which subservience, love, reverence, and obedience is shown. Being a combination of these two parts, “Allah” signifies the one and only God, the one whom absolute love, reverence and obedience is shown.

One misconception is that Allah is a new or different deity than that mentioned in the Bible or Torah. However, Arab Christians use this word too, and instead of the English word “God” it is Allah which is used in their bible, prayers and daily rituals. In fact, if they did not know English, they would not know who or what a “God” in the English sense was, as they are accustomed to the use of “Allah”. Nor do they use the word “Jesus”, but the same word in Arabic for Jesus which is Isa.

However, the Arab Christians share the same belief about God as other Christians around the world, i.e. that Jesus was his son and the incorrect belief in the Trinity. These beliefs are contrary to those of Islam. As Muslims, we believe that these beliefs are not what Jesus or Gods message in the Bible were intended to be. Allah is the same God that Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus worshipped. Furthermore, Islam was the exact same message that was followed and taught by all the Prophets. And they are far from the erroneous and fabricated claims that the Christians and Jews make about them.

{No son (or offspring or children) did Allâh beget, nor is there any ilâh (god) along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allâh above all that they attribute to Him!} [Quran, 23:91]

He is Allah

There is no god but ALLAH !

The First: Nothing is before Him. The Last: Nothing is After Him. The Most High: Nothing is Above Him. The Most Near: Nothing is beyond His Reach. He Begets Not, Nor was He Begotten. The Creator, Provider, and All-Rich. The All-Seer, The All-Knower. He is One and Self-Sufficient. He is not Nature, or any part of it. He ascended above His Throne, High above the Seven Skies. No Vision can encompass Him, but His Grasp is over all vision…

Who is Allah?

[ Say: “He is Allaah, {the} One. “Allaah us-Samad {self-Sufficient}.

“He begets not, nor was He begotten; “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.”] Soorat Al Ikhlaas {112:1-4}

[ Allaah is He Who has created the heavens and the earth and sends down water from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provision for you; and He has made the ships to be of service to you, that they may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers {also} to be of service to you.] Soorat Ibraheem {14:32}

There is no god but ALLAH !

[ And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain {two in pairs – may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two sorts, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big, etc.} He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are aayaat {proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelation, etc.} for people who reflect.] Soorat Ar Ra’d {13:3}

[ Allaah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then {again} He will give you life. Is there any of your {so-called} partners {of Allaah} that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that {evil} they associate {with Him}.] Soorat Ar Ruum {30:40}

[ And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you.] Soorat Ibraheem {14:33}

[ And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allaah, never will you be able to count them. Verily! Man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, – a disbeliever {an extreme ingrate, denies Allaah’s Blessings by disbelief, and by worshipping others besides Allaah, and by disobeying Allaah and His Prophet Muhammad }.] Soorat Ibraheem {14:34}

[ See they not that Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is Able to create the like of them. And He has decreed for them an appointed term, whereof there is not doubt. But the Dhalimeen {polytheists, oppressors, unjust, and wrong-doers, etc.} refuse {the truth the Message of Islamic Monotheism, and accept nothing} but disbelief.] Soorat Al Israa {17:99}

[ Your Ilah {God} is only Allah, the One. He has full knowledge of all things.] Soorat Ta Ha {20:98}

[ Allaah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as {if there were} a niche and within it a lamp, the lamp is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the East {i.e. neither it gets sun-rays only in the morning} nor of the West {i.e. nor it gets sunrays only in the afternoon, but it is exposed to the sun all day long}, whose oil would almost glow forth {of itself}, though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allaah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allaah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allaah is All-Knower of everything.] Soorat An Nuur {24:35}

There is no god but ALLAH !

[ Allaah is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments, until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His slaves as He will, lo! they rejoice!] Soorat Ar Ruum {30:48}

[ Allaah is He Who created you in {a state of} weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave {you} weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills. And it is He Who is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful {i.e. Able to do all things}.] Soorat Ar Ruum {30:54}

[ Allaah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawa {rose over} the Throne {in a manner that suits His Majesty}. You {mankind} have none, besides Him, as a Wali or an intercessor. Will you not then remember {or be admonished}?] Soorat As Sajdah {32:4}

[ Allaah, it is He Who has made the night for you that you may rest therein and the day for you to see. Truly, Allaah is full of Bounty to mankind, yet most of mankind give no thanks.] Soorat Ghaafir {40:61}

There is no god but ALLAH !

[ Allaah, it is He Who has made for you the earth as a dwelling place and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good {looking} and has provided you with good things. That is Allaah, your Lord, then blessed be Allaah, the Lord of the ‘alameen {mankind and jinns}.] Soorat Ghaafir {40:64}

[ Allaah it is He Who has subjected to you the sea, that ships may sail through it by His Command, and that you may seek of His Bounty, and that you may be thankful,] Soorat Al Jaathiya {45:12}

[ And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; it is all as a favour and kindness from Him. Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.] Soorat Al Jaathiya {45:13}

[ Do they not see that Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead? Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.] Soorat Al Ahqaaf {46:33}

[ He is Allaah, than Whom there is laa ilaaha illa huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He} the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen {open}. He is the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.] Soorat Al Hashr {59:22}

[ He is Allaah than Whom there is laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He} the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allaah! {High is He} above all that they associate as partners with Him.] Soorat Al Hashr {59:23}

[ He is Allaah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.] Soorat Al Hashr {59:24}

[ It is Allaah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof {i.e. seven}. His Command descends between them {heavens and earth}, that you may know that Allaah has power over all things, and that Allaah surrounds {comprehends} all things in {His} Knowledge.] Soorat At Talaaq {65:12}

[ Allaah! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them {His creatures} in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.] Soorat Al Baqarah {2:255}

[ Truly, nothing is hidden from Allaah, in the earth or in the heavens. He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. Laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.] Soorat Aal ‘Imraan {3:5-6}

There is no god but ALLAH !

[ Allaah! laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}. Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement than Allaah?] Soorat An Nisa{4:87}

[ Allaah! laa ilaaha illa Huwa! {none deserves to be worshiped but He} To Him belong the Best Names.] Soorat Ta Ha {20:8}

[ “Verily! I am Allaah! laa ilaaha illa Ana {none deserves to be worshiped but Me}, so worship Me, and perform As-Salat for My Remembrance] Soorat Ta Ha {20:14}

[ And He is Allaah; laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}.

His is all praise, in the first {i.e. in this world} and in the last {i.e.in the Hereafter}. And for Him is the Decision, and to Him shall you {all} be returned.]

Soorat Al Qasas {28:70}

[ “But as for my part {I believe} that He is Allaah, my Lord and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord. It was better for you to say, when you entered your garden: “That which Allaah wills {will come to pass}! There is no power but with Allaah”. If you see me less than you in wealth, and children.] Soorat Al Kahf {18:38-39}

[ Say {to these polytheists and pagans}: “Show me those whom you have joined to Him as partners. Nay {there are not at all any partners with Him}! But He is Allaah {Alone}, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”] Soorat Sabaa {34:27}

[ He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running {on a fixed course} for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving.] Soorat Az Zumar {39:5}

Your Lord is Allah, So Worship None But Him

There is no god but ALLAH !

[ “Allaah, your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.”] Soorat As Saffat {37:126}

[ He created you {all} from a single person {Adam}; then made from him his wife[Hawwa {Eve}]. And He has sent down for you of cattle eight pairs {of the sheep,two, male and female; of the goats, two, male and female; of the oxen, two, male and female; and of the camels, two, male and female}. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness, such is Allaah your Lord. His is the kingdom, laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}. How then are you turned away?] Soorat Az Zumar {39:6}

[ If you disbelieve, then verily, Allaah is not in need of you, He likes not disbelief for His slaves. And if you are grateful {by being believers}, He is pleased therewith for you. No bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you what you used to do. Verily, He is the All-Knower of that which is in {men’s} breasts.] Soorat Az Zumar{39:7}

[ Laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshiped but He}. It is He Who gives life and causes death, your Lord and the Lord of your fore-fathers.] Soorat Ad Dukhaan {44:8}

[ O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become al-Muttaqeen {pious and righteous}.] Soorat AlBaqarah {2:21}

[ And will make him {‘Eesaa, Jesus} a Messenger to the Children of Israel{saying}: “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allaah’s Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allaah’s Leave. And I inform you of what you eat, and what you store in your houses. Surely, therein is a sign for you, if you believe.] Soorat Aal ‘Imraan {3:49}

[ O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger with the truth from your Lord, so believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allaah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. And Allaah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.] Soorat An Nisaa {4:170}

[ O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof from your Lord, and We sent down to you a manifest light {this Quraan}. So, as for those who believed in Allaah and held fast to Him, He will admit them to His Mercy and Grace, and guide them to Himself by a Straight Path.] Soorat An Nisaa {4:174- 175}

[ Such is Allaah, your Lord! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa {none deserves to be worshipped but He}, the Creator of all things. So worship Him {Alone}, and He is the Wakil {trustee, disposer of affairs, guardian, etc.} over all things.] Soorat Al An’aam {6:102}

[ No vision can grasp Him, but His Grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Subtle and Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.] Soorat Al An’aam {6:103}

[ Verily, proofs have come to you from your Lord, so whosoever sees, will do so for {the good of} his ownself, and whosoever blinds himself, will do so to his own harm, and I am not a watcher over you.] Soorat Al An’aam {6:104}

[ Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty – We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to al-Fawahish {shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse, etc.} whether committed openly or secretly, and kill not anyone whom Allaah has forbidden, except for a just cause {according to Islamic law}. This He has commanded you that you may understand.] Soorat Al An’aam {6:151}

[ “And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he {or she} attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word {i.e. judge between men or give evidence, etc.}, say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the covenant of Allaah, This He commands you, that you may remember.”] Soorat Al An’aam {6:152}

[ “And verily, this {i.e. Allaah’s Commandments mentioned in the above twoverses 151 and 152} is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not {other} paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This He has ordained for you that you may become al-Muttaqeen {pious and righteous}.”] Soorat Al An’aam {6:153}

(origanally written by islamgreatreligion.wordpress.com)

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A poem from my heart

جاتا پل جب آ نے والے پل کا ہاتھ پکڑ تا ہے

میری خواب سراۓ  میں اک نیا دریچہ کھلتا ہے

پھر میں اس میں جھانک کے جانے کتنے منظر دیکھتی ہوں

وقت کا د ھ ار ا جیسے میرے ساتھ ہی چلتا رکتا ہے

میری سوچیں مجھے اڑ ا  کر دور کہیں لے جاتی ہیں

اس انجان  محل میں جس کا ہر اک برج سنہرا هے

جس میں چند اکیلی یادیں صدیوں سے لہراتی ہیں

لیکن جس کے در پیے آج بھی تیز ہوا کا پہرا ہے

سینکڑ و ں بار صدا  دینے پرایک جھروکا  کھلتا ہے

اک ان جانی سرگوشی مجھے اپنے پاس بلاتی ہے

سب کلیوں سے شبنم چن کر میرے ہاتھ پی رکھتی ہے

اور گھٹا کےآ ینۓ میں سارا جہاں دکھلاتی ہے

سوچ سمندر کی سیپوں  سے موتی چنتی رہتی ہوں

میں اپنے دل کی سب با تیں اس ہمدم سے کہتی ہوں

وو بے شکل صدا  میرا ہر خواب مکمل کرتی ہے

چند کو میرے ہاتھ کا کنگن دھنک کو آنچل کرتی ہے

لیکن نام پتا پوچھوں تو وہ چھپ سی ہو جاتی ہے

بند ہوتا ہے محل جھروکا پھر سے کہیں کھو جاتی ہے

                                              saleha waseem

محبت اوس کی صورت

پیاسی پنکھڑی کے ہونٹ کو سیراب کرتی ہے

گلوں کی آستینوں میں انوکھے رنگ بھرتی ہے

سحر کے جھٹپٹے میں گنگناتی، مسکراتی جگمگاتی ہے

محبت کے دنوں میں دشت بھی محسوس ہوتا ہے

کسی فردوس کی صورت

محبت اوس کی صورت

محبت ابر کی صورت

دلوں کی سر زمیں پہ گھر کے آتی ہے اور برستی ہے

چمن کا ذرہ زرہ جھومتا ہے مسکراتا ہے

ازل کی بے نمو مٹی میں سبزہ سر اُٹھاتا ہے

محبت اُن کو بھی آباد اور شاداب کرتی ہے

جو دل ہیں قبر کی صورت

محبت ابر کی صورت

محبت آگ کی صورت

بجھے سینوں میں جلتی ہے تودل بیدار ہوتے ہیں

محبت کی تپش میں کچھ عجب اسرار ہوتے ہیں

کہ جتنا یہ بھڑکتی ہے عروسِ جاں مہکتی ہے

دلوں کے ساحلوں پہ جمع ہوتی اور بکھرتی ہے

محبت جھاگ کی صورت

محبت آگ کی صورت

محبت خواب کی صورت

نگاہوں میں اُترتی ہے کسی مہتاب کی صورت

ستارے آرزو کے اس طرح سے جگمگاتے ہیں

کہ پہچانی نہیں جاتی دلِ بے تاب کی صورت

محبت کے شجر پرخواب کے پنچھی اُترتے ہیں

تو شاخیں جاگ اُٹھتی ہیں

تھکے ہارے ستارے جب زمیں سے بات کرتے ہیں

تو کب کی منتظر آنکھوں میں شمعیں جاگ اُٹھتی ہیں

محبت ان میں جلتی ہے چراغِ آب کی صورت

محبت خواب کی صورت

محبت درد کی صورت

گزشتہ موسموں کا استعارہ بن کے رہتی ہے

شبانِ ہجر میںروشن ستارہ بن کے رہتی ہے

منڈیروں پر چراغوں کی لوئیں جب تھرتھر اتی ہیں

نگر میں نا امیدی کی ہوئیں سنسناتی ہیں

گلی جب کوئی آہٹ کوئی سایہ نہیں رہتا

دکھے دل کے لئے جب کوئی دھوکا نہیں رہتا

غموں کے بوجھ سے جب ٹوٹنے لگتے ہیں شانے تو

یہ اُن پہ ہاتھ رکھتی ہے

کسی ہمدرد کی صورت

گزر جاتے ہیں سارے قافلے جب دل کی بستی سے

فضا میں تیرتی ہے دیر تک یہ

گرد کی صورت

محبت درد کی صورت

Ilahi teri chokhat per bhikari ban ker aya hoon,

Sarapa faqr hoon, ijz-o-nadamat saath laya hoon,

Bhikari woh ke jis ke paas jholi hai na payala hai,

Bhikari woh jisey hiras-o-hawas nay maar dala hai,

Mata-e-deen-o-danish, nafs ke hathon se lutwa ker.

Sakoon-e-qalb ki daulat hawas ki bhent charha ker,

Lutta ker sari poonji ghaflat-o-issyan ki daldal mein,

Sahara lene aya hoon tere kaabay ke aanchal mein,

Gunahon ki lipatt sey, kaynat-e-qalb afsurda,

Iraaday muzmehehal, himmat shikasta hoslay murda,

Kahan say laoon takat dil ki sachi tarjumani ki,

Ke kis jhanjhal mein guzri hein ghariyan zindagani ki.

Khulasa yeh ke bus jull bhun ker apni roo-sayahi sey

Sarapa faqr ban ker apni haalat ki tabahi sey,

Tere darbar mein laya hoon apni ab zaboon-haali,

Teri chokhat ke laeq har amal se hath hein khali,

Yeh Tera ghar hai ye Tere mehr ka darbar hai Maula

Sarapa noor hai, ik mohbat-e-anwaar hai Mola.

Teri chokhat ke jo adab hein, main unn se khali hoon,

Nahi jis ko saleeqa manganey ka, woh sawali hoon

Zuban ghalt-e-nadamat dil ki na’kas tarjumani per,

Khudaya reham meri iss zaban-e-ijz-zabani per,

Ye ankhein khushk hein, Ya Rabb inhein rona nahi aata,

Sulagtay daagh hein dil mein jinhein dhona nahi aata.

Ilahi teri chokhat per bhikari ban kay aaya hoon,

Sarapa faqr hoon, ijz-o-nadamat saath laya hoon,


میں کی کیتا ہاسے ہاسے

لے بیٹھی آ ں پریت دی کھاری

ہن چکاں تے بھا روں ڈردی

نہ چکاں تاں قولؤں ہاری

01 Coffee:

The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee.

02 Pin-Hole Camera:

The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

03 Chess:

A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe – where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10 th century – and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.

04 Parachute:

A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing – concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.

Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

05 Shampoo:

Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

06 Refinement:

Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today – liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

07 Shaft:

The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

08 Metal Armor:

Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation – so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

09 Pointed Arch:

The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s – with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V’s castle architect was a Muslim.

10 Surgery:

Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

11 Windmill:

The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

12 Vaccination:

The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

13 Fountain Pen:

The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

14 Numerical Numbering:

The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

15 Soup:

Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal – soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas – see No 4).

16 Carpets:

Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s non-representational art. In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”. Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

17 Pay Cheques:

The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

18 Earth is in sphere shape?

By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that realization dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.

19 Rocket and Torpedo:

Though the Chinese invented salt-petre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo – a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

20 Gardens:

Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

Iqbal says:

تھے تو آباء وہ تمھارے ہی ۔ ۔ ۔ پر تم کیا ہو؟

ہاتھ پہ ہاتھ دھرے منتظرِ فردا ہو

– p.s (I have taken this from Ali,journal.wordpress.com)